What is Cloud Computing?

Cloud computing is the distribution of different computing services or resources (storage, networking, analytics, software, intelligence, servers, disaster recovery technology, security, etc.) through the Internet.

Cloud computing changed the model of hiring these services. Clients don’t have to buy, own and maintain data centers and servers. Instead, they can have access to the specific services they require on-demand. As a result, clients’ operation costs can be lowered, and they can access an efficient and modern infrastructure.

Benefits of cloud computing.

  • Efficient your budget. Cloud computing supplies the necessary infrastructure without you purchasing hardware, *software (*in some cases), servers, data centers, maintenance, etc.  
  • Easy access to top-notch technology. There is a wide variety of technologies available for you to access and boost your business. In addition, the price will probably be lower than if you buy them because their cost is shared by different clients. 
  • Fast deployment. No matter the geographical location of your business’s branches, the software can be deployed worldwide in just minutes. Your application or service can get the necessary infrastructure to be available globally. To be close to your potential clients around the world is possible. 
  • Scalability. To calculate the resources you will need in the future, provisioning resources in case of peak activity levels is not that crucial on the cloud. You can simply get and pay what you need today (bandwidth, storage, computing power, etc.), during peak activity moments, and so on. You can go up or down in demand for services.
  • Security. Trustable cloud providers have policies, guarantees, advanced technology, and controls to strengthen your security, protect your data, applications, etc., from threats. A team of hundreds of IT specialists of the cloud provider can defend a lot better your server than your company’s IT team of a few people.   
  • Trustability. Cloud providers have a robust infrastructure and redundancy enough to offer you an efficient backup, disaster recovery, guarantees for their services, etc. 
  • More productivity. Cloud computing solves many of the daily tasks IT teams manage (maintenance of software, hardware, patching, updating, etc.). Your collaborators can invest this time in key projects and the development of your business.

Types of cloud computing.

Cloud computing services are generally divided into three categories. Infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), and software as a service (SaaS). Let’s check them out!

  • Infrastructure as a service (IaaS). What it supplies you it’s the necessary IT infrastructure to run your business. Virtual or dedicated hardware (virtual machines or servers), operating systems, storage, networks, etc. it offers a high level of flexibility and control over the IT resources. You pay for every resource as long as you use it.
  • Platform as a service (PaaS). These are the type of cloud computing services that provide you the environment you need for designing, creating, testing, managing, and delivering software applications. Developers don’t have to get servers, storage, databases, network, etc., required for their work. 
  • Software as a Service (SaaS). It offers you a vast menu of software applications delivered through the Internet, on-demand. SaaS providers host, maintain (update, upgrade, patch, fix errors, etc.), and manage the software for you. Clients only have to connect to the application they require through a common browser or application, no matter their location or device (computer, tablet, phone, etc.). 

Conclusion

Cloud computing makes things easier for business owners like you. The money and time it saves you makes it a choice to be considered. Define clearly your business needs to choose the type of service that suits you better.

Error 404 explained

Pretty much all the time, there’s an interaction between the browsers and servers. This communication is triggered every time someone in the world requests a website. Servers have their own way of informing the status of that request: the HTTP codes. There are five HTTP code categories. Statuses are expressed through three numbers. The first number indicates the type of status.

  • 1XX, informational responses.
  • 2XX, successful responses.
  • 3XX, redirects.
  • 4XX, client errors (like error 404). 
  • 5XX, server errors.

What is error 404?

Error 404 means “not found”. It is a type of HTTP response status code that points to the category of “client errors”. 

That “not found” status can mean:

  1. The requested resource can’t be found on the server.
  2. Talking about a browser, it means the requested URL can’t be found.
  3. In APIs (application programming interfaces), even if the endpoint is valid, the resource is not available anymore. 

For sure, you have seen error 404 different times while surfing online. The reason is the Internet has a really big amount of broken or dead links. So every time someone clicks one of those dead/broken links, the error 404 message is shown.

This code only points that the requested resource is not found, but it does not supply additional information to understand if this resource’s lack of availability is temporary or permanent. 

Error 404 format.

This status code can be shown as follows.

  • HTTP 404 Not Found
  • 404 Page Not Found
  • Status 404 Not Found 
  • 404 Not Found Error 
  • 404 File or Directory Not Found
  • The requested URL was not found on this server

How can you repair error 404?

Detect broken links. Your website can have internal or external links causing error 404. You can check them manually or through a software tool. Once found, fix them or delete them.

Talking about internal links, it’s not rare people mistake while typing URLs, and typos produce broken links. Articles placed in incorrect categories can drive to broken links too.

External links are useful to give examples, to recommend content, etc. The problem is, they all belong to different websites, and they can be deleted or relocated by the owners without you knowing about the change. Check external links regularly. Delete the ones that don’t work or replace them with others that work properly. 

Be careful while deleting content. Sometimes, some pages are deleted during maintenance or renovation of websites, but the links that point to them remain. These become broken links. 

Redirect properly. While organizing websites, the change of URL for certain pages (content) is a common action. But if you don’t redirect your audience correctly, they can be clicking a dead link.

Customize Error 404. To have an error 404 is always a possibility. Prepare in advance! Customize your error page to apologize and not to lose your audience. As users, we all get annoyed when we request content, and instead, we receive an error answer with a code we don’t necessarily understand. Make this page useful, informative for users to know what’s going on.

Conclusion.

Error 404 is common, but you can track its causes to repair the pages manually or with software’s help. Prevent it as a part of your website maintenance before it affects your users’ experience, and bounce rating. Broken links affect the SEO, and you don’t want to harm your search ranking, do you?

What is Enterprise DNS?

Enterprise DNS (domain name system) is a high-level DNS service specially focused on large enterprises with big needs. Enterprise DNS implementation offers to resolve internal and external requests for enterprises in an efficient, scalable, secure, automatable, and centrally managed way. Enterprises need a reliable DNS architecture to operate, bullet-proof security, redundancy, speed, 100% uptime… and more capabilities that domain registrars’ DNS can’t guarantee exclusively for a single client.

Enterprise DNS means the opportunity to have a robust DNS architecture (network, DNS servers) and all its capabilities, for your organization, totally at your service. 

It’s a really powerful solution for companies that already have a complex and hard-to-manage structure. They have grown international, and they have plenty of branches, which means regular DNS modifications, implementation of new technologies, re-configurations, scalability at a high level, etc. 

When do you need Enterprise DNS?

  • You need it when your business has grown in such a dimension that you have to operate expeditiously big actions like the following. 
  • To have 100% DNS availability to guarantee access and to handle all the traffic.
  • To attend millions of DNS requests every month. Usually, with regular DNS service providers, clients have a limit of requests that can be attended per month. This limit and the extra fees you have to pay in case you cross it don’t exist with enterprise DNS. 
  • To automate thousands of modifications to the DNS configuration every hour.
  • To count on the fastest propagation. Enterprise DNS supplies the possibility of managing and monitoring the propagation via the control panel. TTL values can be modified (up to a minute) from there to accelerate propagation. 
  • To manage thousands (or more) of IP addresses with 100% uptime.
  • To rely on high speed for responding to clients’ requests globally. Enterprise DNS providers offer a robust network with servers strategically located for you to be really close to your clients.
  • To turn on/off thousands of virtual machines every hour.
  • To manage the connection for thousands or millions of IoT (Internet of things) devices.
  • To enable a virtual network for DHCP (dynamic host configuration protocol) services across many different locations.
  • To have a centralized, clear, detailed view of the inside DNS traffic of your enterprise. Meaning, traffic is generated by thousands of collaborators, machines, and branches.
  • To reduce notoriously human errors through automation.
  • To strengthen your security defenses on a large scale, detect threats expeditiously (close to immediately), and be protected in case of DDoS (distributed denial of service) attacks.
  • To rely on 24/7 customer service for your operation and your clients’ not be stopped.

Who is using Enterprise DNS?

Enterprise DNS is already being used by international e-commerce shops that have to attend a really big number of global requests every minute. 

Enterprises offering business applications. They provide the software for every employee to work daily in different companies/industries. They can’t afford outages or downtime. That would mean stopping the productivity and incomes of complete companies.

Enterprises supplying mission-critical applications. They work with highly resource-demanding companies. Internet providers, data centers, hosting providers, aircraft or railway operating systems, electric power grid systems, online banking systems, etc.

Conclusion.

Enterprise DNS is a massive solution for massive enterprises’ needs. The whole Internet relies on such infrastructure. Imagine having your own! It goes far beyond the regular imagination!

SaaS vs PaaS vs IaaS – What is the difference?

Today we are going to talk about Cloud Computing. It is the practice of using outside servers that are connected to the Internet for storing data, managing the data, information processing, and other tasks. The most popular types of Cloud Computing are SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS. Let’s see the differences. 

Local server

When you have your own server hosted on-site, you will be responsible for all of the following categories: 

  • Networking. Here you will need the Internet, routers, and all the connection between the devices. 
  • Storage. Storage for hosting data. 
  • Servers. The computers that will offer services. 
  • Virtualization. A way to offer virtual machines. 
  • OS. An operating system like Windows, Linux, etc. 
  • Middleware. Drivers for devices, APIs, application services, etc. 
  • Runtime. – frameworks and environments for developers and services needed for other applications. 
  • Data. – data storing and processing. 
  • Application. Software that will be used for the needs of the company. 

We need this information for the basis of our comparison of SaaS vs PaaS vs IaaS and to understand better the differences. 

SaaS

SaaS is a software as a service. When we talk about SaaS, the client gets directly a software to use. He or she can’t modify the software and gets features based on the plan that he or she has chosen.

The SaaS provider is responsible for all of the previously mentioned categories – networking, storage, servers, virtualization, OS, middleware, runtime, data, and application. The provider must take care of bug fixing, errors, software updates, and adding new features.

Advantages: easy to start, easy to use, no maintenance needed.

Disadvantages: zero control over the software and its development, vendor lock-in that makes it harder to migrate to another,

Typical examples of SaaS are Dropbox, Microsoft 360, Skype, etc.

PaaS

PaaS is a platform as a service. PaaS is a good choice for development. It offers everything already up and running, including networking, storage, servers, virtualization, OS, middleware, and runtime. 

The developers can jump to the action and start writing code right away. The client will need to take care of the data and the applications that will be needed.

Advantages: almost everything is pre-installed, so you can choose what applications do you need and start using them. You don’t take care of the infrastructure or OS.

Disadvantages: the storage is still the provider’s responsibility, so it can’t be 100% secured, which might be more expensive than an IaaS solution.

Typical examples of PaaS are Microsoft Azure, Amazon AWS, Google Cloud, etc.

IaaS

IaaS is infrastructure as a service. In the case of IaaS, you will get an open canvas. The IaaS provider will take care of the infrastructural part – networking, storage, servers, and virtualization. 

The client takes care of OS, middleware, runtime, data, and applications.

It is a great next step when you want to stop worrying about the on-premise server and go to the cloud.

Advantages: you forget to worry about infrastructural problems of your server, pay-as-you-go model, cheaper to start than a local server.

Disadvantages: You still have many things to take care of, a lot more than in the case of PaaS or SaaS. You will need to maintain the system and the software.

Typical examples of IaaS are Rackspace, Amazon AWS, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud, and many smaller providers.

Conclusion

SaaS is the easiest to manage from the client’s perspective. PaaS is a great option for creating development servers, use and create applications. IaaS is the most basic cloud approach, but it has the highest freedom for the client.

What is IPAM, and why is it important?

What does IPAM mean?

IPAM is short for IP Address Management. It is a method of IP scanning and IP address tracking. It manages the data correlated with a network’s Internet Protocol address range and IPAM system. As a result, administrators are able to guarantee that the list of assignable IP addresses is up to date and enough with IPAM software and IP tools. It comes to make things simple and automates the management of many duties for maintaining IPs. With the IPAM network, are also common functionalities, such as managing reservations in DHCP, reporting, and data collection.

How does it work?

IPAM assists with numerous tasks, and each has its own process. As a result, there can be variations in the technical way they work.

It handles three essential things in every network: IP addresses, Domain Name System (DNS), and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). They produce fundamental data for IPAM to accomplish its tasks.

To receive details from all your network’s devices, IPAM uses Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), and neighborhood scanning. SNMP is capable of collecting and organizing information about IP networks’ devices. 

With the combination of such tech and further monitoring tools, IPAM is able to receive the needed information to control the IP address range o your network. The whole statistics and information is saved in a database and can be easily accessed.

IPAM combination with DNS and DHCP

Administrators who manage DNS and DHCP services can benefit from IPAM. IPAM tools can be effective on their own, but they can’t solve alone underlying problems frequently associated with decentralized network based systems.

If you apply IPAM software on its own, the absence of integration with DNS and DHCP can be a problem. This is because these core networks roles are strongly tied to each other. If you want your IPAM data much more accurate, keep DNS and DHCP data synced. It would be a lot more valuable that way.

Operating without it

You can operate without IPAM, but it will be more challenging. The IT team can handle a small network with a simple spreadsheet. It will contain a table of IPs, routers, connected devices and port numbers. For a bigger network, this way of managing will be very problematic. It will be the admin’s job to check the extensive number of IPs and constantly will have to update the spreadsheet.

Here are some of the problems that probably will occur:

  • Troubleshooting difficulties. Everything is more complicated when it has to be done manually. Discovering the specific network issue can be a nightmare. It could take a lot of valuable time.
  • Safety problems. The chance for security breaches is very high. An unrecognized new device can connect to the network when the accountability is not well done.
  • IP address struggle. IP conflict is a possible scenario if there is no well-configured DHCP, and the admin is doing it manually. If two machines receive the same IP, neither one will be able to connect. If one of the devices is a server, this would surely be annoying.
  • Compliant problems. You might need reports and logs for your IP address space. It depends on the country you are in. If you are required to provide a report, it has to be proper.

What is Premium DNS service?

Whether you own a personal blog or a big e-shop, you have to use a DNS service to be reachable online. Premium DNS service is paid, but the benefits of using it are numerous. So let’s explain a little bit more about it.

Premium DNS explained 

Premium DNS is a service, which provides excellent features. It helps your site to operate smoothly. This service guarantees so much more than a free service. So what can you expect from it? It includes:

  • More DNS zones. 
  • Higher speed.
  • Faster loading time.
  • Strong DNS servers’ networks. Benefit from a lot more presence points (PoP) for your business.
  • Load balancing methods, including GeoDNS
  • Uptime is guaranteed.
  • Friendly and simple interface.
  • Millions of queries, and often unlimited amount.
  • Effectively managing the traffic.
  • DNSSEC support, monitoring, and checkings
  • Cryptographic and excellent tech security to keep your site protected from vulnerabilities and attacks. You can get more or less features, depending on the plan you choose. 
  • DNS failover.
  • More email forwards.
  • 24/7 Professional support.

What is DNS?

It is proper to explain what DNS is. So, it will help to understand the whole picture about Premium DNS fully. 

In brief, DNS is a global network of name servers. It has the primary purpose to show where are the domain names are really. In addition, the Domain Name System helps to link the domain names to their IP addresses. It is easier for humans to remember the name of a particular website rather than all IP addresses for all sites, which they use regularly.

Moreover, the Domain Name System has features, such as linking hostnames to other hostnames, verifications, and further instructions about services.

Therefore the Domain Name System is a communication network. And it will guide all of your visitors and direct them to the correct addresses or additional hostnames.

So after we made clear what DNS is, let’s examine few questions. They will help you determine if Premium DNS service is necessary for you or not.

  • What amount of people have to connect to your website?
  • How frequently will these people need to connect?
  • What is their location? Are most of them from your local country? Or maybe the visitors are from all around the world?
  • Does your site require some more extra security features? Is it that essential to have protection for your customers at every move they make through your site?

When is Premium DNS required?

Consider implementing Premium DNS service, for example, if your business generates a lot of traffic. In this way, you will be able to manage it and your worldwide presence. Uninterrupted uptime is crucial in this scenario. You have to be prepared to answer the millions of queries coming from all around the world.

Maybe you have to respond to the expectations for a high-security website. And ensure that transactions and users’ data are safe.   

Such examples are businesses like e-Commerce, banking, accounting systems, fintech companies, payments, government, and many more.

Conclusion.

Any managed DNS service is a perfect solution if you own a small static site, a portfolio site, or maybe a blog. If the amount of visitors is not so significant, it is a good idea to use a free DNS service.   

If your site is not so small and you need additional features to provide better security or expand your business worldwide, it is better to choose to use Premium DNS service. It will provide a better performance, redundancy, security, and of course, speed.

What is DNS poisoning (DNS spoofing)?

Through a DNS poisoning attack, a hacker replaces the address of a legitimate website with a fake one. Once achieved, that hacker can steal delicate knowledge, like passwords and numbers of an account. The hacker can also deny loading your site, which is spoofed.

What does DNS poisoning mean?

DNS poisoning, also called DNS spoofing, is a technique, which hackers use. It manipulates identified weak spots inside the domain name system (DNS). 

When it is made, a hacker can direct traffic from one genuine site to a fake version of it. And because of the way DNS works, the infection can spread further.

How is DNS spoofing performed?

When you want to visit a site, your server pulls up a response from the hacker. Thus, the forged data is stored. And this makes DNS cache poisoning accomplished. 

A hacker can achieve this by:

  • Binding the server. Hackers are capable of sending a lot of queries to a caching server. Afterward, they send thousands of fake responses. And at some point, they take control of the root domain and the whole site.
  • Server simulation. The hacker responds a lot quicker with the wrong answer when your DNS server submits a query for a translation. And this is happening long before the correct server can do so.
  • Exploiting open ports. Hackers can send to DNS resolver ports thousands of queries. They identify which port is open in time. The focus for future attacks will be only on this port. 

DNS poisoning attacks are happening because the system is not secure enough. Your devices are holding conversations with servers with the help of the user datagram protocol (UDP). The connection is provided fast and efficiently. The problem is that no security measures are built-in. Your device is not able to verify the server’s identity. And also, it doesn’t validate the information that comes back.

It is easy to perform fabrication in such an environment. Someone can own the server you are corresponding with. And the fact that proving your identity is not a must. That could lead you to receive forged data and probably never know about it.

DNS poisoning and DNSSEC

DNS does not contain encryption. That makes intercepting the traffic with spoofing an easy job. Furthermore, DNS servers do not verify the IP addresses to which they are redirecting the traffic. 

Here comes DNSSEC, which is a protocol created to add more ways and methods of verification and make your DNS more secure. This protocol is able to generate an individual cryptographic signature and store it together with your other DNS records, like A record, CNAME, etc. Then your DNS resolver uses this specific signature to validate a DNS response. So this way, it is guaranteeing that the record wasn’t falsified.

DNSSEC is a great service that can help you protect yourself from DNS poisoning.

Conclusion.

DNS poisoning is a serious problem, and it could be terrifying. Protecting and configuring a DNS server accurately is going to help you to avoid such things from happening.

DNS CAA record – everything you need to know

The DNS CAA record helps domain name owners to take control over SSL certificates. You can decide which CA is allowed to issue them and also what kind of type of certificate. 

The DNS CAA record was first described in 2013. From September 2017, Certificate Authorities are required to check it before issuing any certificate. So let’s explain a little bit more about it.

DNS CAA record explained

The short CAA stands for Certification Authority Authorization. The DNS CAA record is a Resource Record in DNS. With it, the owner of the domain name is capable of specifying which Certification Authorities (CAs) are allowed to issue a certificate for the domain. 

On the other hand, CAs are companies that are able to publish certificates for a domain, such as SSL, TLS, or another.

When domain owners want to improve their site’s security, they need to include and purchase a certificate.

Here comes the DNS CAA record. It provides better control of the issuing process. It also decreases the chance of mistakes in publishing the certificates of the domain. 

To view which exact part of the domain it applies to, you have to check inside the DNS CAA record. It could be implemented for the whole domain name or only for a subdomain.

A recommendation that should be well considered is to use the DNS CAA record with DNSSEC. When DNSSEC is enabled, you receive better security and higher trust from the side of the CA. 

What is the DNS CAA record structure?

When you want to create a new DNS CAA record, you will have to fill in some parameters. Make sure to do it correctly.   

Type: Here, you have the type of DNS record. In this case, it is CAA.

TTL: This is the TTL value for the CAA record. Since it won’t be changed so frequently, you can set it for a longer time. It could be 1800, 3200, 7200. 

Host: This is the name of the host. Here you place the domain name or the subdomain name for which the CAA records apply.

Flag: 0 or 128. 0 will tell the CA it is not critical to follow the rules. 128 will present critical, so the CA needs to match the rules.

Propery type: issue/issuewild/iodef

Issue – Allows the CA to issue a certificate.

Issuewild – Allows the CA to issue a wildcard certificate.

Iodef (incident object description exchange format) – This shows the CA where it can send a report. Such as for a questionable certificate that doesn’t fulfill the rules.

Value: Value which the chosen CA provides.

Why is it beneficial to use it?

When you use the CAA DNS records, you are taking control of Certificate Authorities, which are allowed to issue certificates for your domain. That happens without required cooperation from the certificate authority. Moreover, when globally using the CAA, it will enable certificate authorities to reach a domain owner. For cases, which are concerning a failed certificate issuance request. Based on that, website and domain owners will identify requests for false or fraudulent certificates. 

Also, we must mention that using DNS CAA records doesn’t limit you to only one specific certificate authority. When you are using many DNS CAA records, it will allow numerous certificate authorities to issue certificates for each domain you like.